A wide range of drugs has been shown to have adverse effects on the developing fetus and such a possibility has formed the basis of strict evaluation of every new therapeutic agent. The licensing for distribution and the surveillance of adverse effects is the responsibility of the Food and Drug Administration.

The Baltimore Washington Infant Study (BWIS) gave great attention to the recall of drug intake of the study mothers. Rubin (1993) found that more than half of the mothers used at least one medication during early pregnancy. In the analyses of all cardiac defects as a group only three drugs appeared as possible risk factors: diazepam, metronidazole and ibuprofen. In the diagnosis-specific analyses possible associations were also found for antitussives, chlomiphene, corticosteroids and benzodiazepines as a category of psychotropic, tranquilizing drugs. Early CVM were associated with the latter agents, but the number of exposed mothers was small.

Selected References