For additional literature about occurrence from the last 5 years, click here.

  • Botto LD. Correa A. Erickson JD. Racial and temporal variations in the prevalence of heart defects. Pediatrics. 107(3):E32, 2001 Mar.
  • Botto LD. Mulinare J. Erickson JD. Occurrence of congenital heart defects in relation to maternal mulitivitamin use. American Journal of Epidemiology. 151(9):878-84, 2000 May 1.
  • Ferencz C. On the birth prevalence of congenital heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 16(7):1701-2, 1990 Dec.
  • Fixler DE. Pastor P. Chamberlin M. et.al. Trends in congenital heart disease in Dallas County births. 1971-1984. Circulation. 81(1):137-42, 1990 Jan.
  • Grabitz RG. Joffres MR. Collins-Nakai RL. Congenital heart disease: incidence in the first year of life. The Alberta Heritage Pediatric Cardiology Program. American Journal of Epidemiology. 128(2):381-8, 1988 Aug.
  • Hoffman JI. Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 39(12):1890-900, 2002 Jun 19.
  • Lai WW. Lipshultz SE. Easley KA. et.al. Prevalence of congenital cardiovascular malformations in children of human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: the prospective P2C2 HIV Multicenter Study. P2C2 HIV Study Group, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 32(6):1749-55, 1998 Nov 15.
  • Martin GR. Perry LW. Ferencz C. Increased prevalence of ventricular septal defect: epidemic or improved diagnosis. Pediatrics. 83(2):200-3, 1989 Feb.
  • Meyer-Wittkopf M. Simpson JM. Sharland GK. Incidence of congenital heart defects in fetuses of diabetic mothers: a retrospective study of 326 cases. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 8(1):8-10, 1996 Jul.
  • Pexieder T. Bloch D. EUROCAT Working Party on Congenital Heart Disease. EUROCAT subproject on epidemiology of congenital heart disease: First analysis of the completed study. In: Clark EB, Markwald RR, Takao, A (eds) Developmental Mechanisms of Heart Disease. Armonk, NY : Futura Pub., 1995.
  • Samanek M. Congenital heart malformations: prevalence, severity, survival, and quality of life. Cardiology in the Young. 10(3):179-85, 2000 May.
  • Sissman NJ. Incidence of congenital heart disease. JAMA. 285(20):2579-80, 2001 May 23-30.
  • Wilson PD. Correa-Villasenor A. Loffredo CA. Ferencz C. Temporal trends in prevalence of cardiovascular malformations in Maryland and the District of Columbia, 1981-1988. The Baltimore-Washington Infant Study Group. Epidemiology. 4(3):259-65, 1993 May.
  • Wilson PD. Loffredo CA. Correa-Villasenor A. Ferencz C. Attributable fraction for cardiac malformations.[see comment]. American Journal of Epidemiology. 148(5):414-23, 1998 Sep 1. (Comment in: Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Jan 15;151(2):208-12.)
  • Wren C. Richmond S. Donaldson L. Temporal variability in birth prevalence of cardiovascular malformations. Heart (British Cardiac Society). 83(4):414-9, 2000 Apr.


For additional literature about mortality from the last 5 years, click here.

  • Arias E. MacDorman MF. Strobino DM. Guyer B. Annual summary of vital statistics–2002. Pediatrics. 112(6 Pt 1):1215-30, 2003 Dec.
  • Boneva et al. Mortality associated with congenital heart defects in the United States: trends and racial disparities, 1979-1997. Circulation. 103(19):2376-81, 2001 May 15.
  • Chang RK. Klitzner TS. Can regionalization decrease the number of deaths for children who undergo cardiac surgery? A theoretical analysis. Pediatrics. 109(2):173-81, 2002 Feb.
  • DeMone JA. Gonzalez PC. Gauvreau K. Piercey GE. Jenkins KJ. Risk of death for Medicaid recipients undergoing congenital heart surgery. Pediatric Cardiology. 24(2):97-102, 2003 Mar-Apr.
  • Gonzalez PC. Gauvreau K. Demone JA. Piercey GE. Jenkins KJ. Regional racial and ethnic differences in mortality for congenital heart surgery in children may reflect unequal access to care. Pediatric Cardiology. 24(2):103-8, 2003 Mar-Apr.
  • Kecskes Z. Cartwright DW. Poor outcome of very low birthweight babies with serious congenital heart disease. Archives of Disease in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 87(1):F31-3, 2002 Jul.
  • Loffredo CA. Wilson PD. Ferencz C. Maternal diabetes: an independent risk factor for major cardiovascular malformations with increased mortality of affected infants. Teratology. 64(2):98-106, 2001
  • Spiegelhalter DJ. Mortality and volume of cases in paediatric cardiac surgery: retrospective study based on routinely collected data. BMJ. 324(7332):261-3, 2002 Feb 2.